Types of vitamins

Last Update : 2018/09/26 15:08:20
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Vitamins are essential for our body metabolism, but humans cannot make them by themselves, so we need to supplement them. Vitamins have different functions in our bodies by type.

Vitamins are divided into fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamin.

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Vitamins A, D, E, and K are soluble in fat. So it can be absorbed into our body when we eat them with fatty foods. That's why it's found in fatty foods, liver, fish, milk, butter, vegetable oil and so on. Unlike water-soluble vitamins, they are stored in the liver or body fat when they are not in use. They can be rather toxic if we take excessive amounts.

Chemical name Daily recommended dose for adults Deficiency disease Food sources
Vitamin A Retinol Carotenoids 900 µg Night blindness Hyperkeratosis Keratomalacia Liver, carrots, sweet potato, spinach, broccoli
Vitamin D Cholecalciferol Ergocalciferol 10 µg Rickets Osteomalacia Fish, eggs, liver, muschrooms
Vitamin E Tocopherols 15 mg Hemolytic anemia Nuts, seeds, spinach, avocado
Vitamin K Phylloquinone Menaquinoes 120 µg Bleeding diathesis Spinach, cabbage, kale, soybeans

Vitamins B and C are soluble in water. Vitamin B includes thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxin (B6), biotin (B7), folic acid (B9), and cobalamin (B12). Water-soluble vitamins are not stored in our body and any excess amounts of them just pass through the body, so overdose intake of them is not toxic but useless as well. They are largely contained in grains, vegetables, fruits and so on. Water-soluble vitamins are usually destroyed when they are cooked or exposed to the air.

Chemical name Daily recommended dose for adults Deficiency disease Food sources
Vitamin B3 Niacin 16 mg Pellagra Turkey, chicken, peanuts, mushrooms
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine 100 mg Anemia
Peripheral neuropathy
Turkey, beef, tuna, avocado
Vitamin B9 Folate 400 µg Megaloblastic anemia Neural tube defects for fetus Beans, asparagus, avocado, broccoli
Vitamin B12 Cobalamin 2.4 µg Pernicious anemia Fish, shellfish, milk, cheese, egg
Vitamin C Ascorbic acid 90 mg Scurvy Fruits and vegetables

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